Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning

Question: Portray about aggregate initiative in study hall, Importance of aggregate administration in the homeroom and Methods of utilization of aggregate authority in the study hall? Answer: Aggregate administration Conveys the capacities and forces from the person to a solitary gathering Means by which duty, responsibility and authority are extensively conveyed for making open doors for participating in administration Aggregate administration in study hall Most regarded part of educator preparing and the instructor understudy relationship Communitarian administration in the study hall helps in gainful and sound relational connections, and it offers a chance to discuss unmistakably with the educators From the viewpoint of the conduct of the educator, the understudies worth and trust the instructors. Significance of aggregate authority in the study hall Aggregate authority has progressively positive effect on the accomplishment of the understudies when contrasted with singular understudies All individuals having a relationship with high-performing schools have more effect on school choices than those with low-performing schools Instructive hypotheses supporting aggregate administration in the homeroom Self-sufficient learning hypothesis Transformative learning hypothesis Techniques for utilization of aggregate initiative in the study hall Four fundamental advances To prepare, plan, execute and support Assemble availability and establish the framework for future work that will be taken up in the study hall The educator talks with the understudies on the ideal points of instructing and the methods by which they can be accomplished The instructors and the understudies cooperate for transforming plans into the real world Supporting the authority needs systems to be taken in the mood for guaranteeing long haul sway. References Buehl, D,Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning. in , fourth ed., , 2014. Gardner, J, J Gardner,Assessment and Learning. in , Sage, 2012.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Global Operation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Worldwide Operation - Essay Example In addition, there might be contradictions between the nearby network and PPQ (Cateora and Graham 19). This is on the grounds that PPQ will present new representatives who will be joined by their relatives in the host outside nation. The host remote nation will encounter strain in its networks and social luxuries, for instance, schools. This is on the grounds that the networks and social conveniences where PPQ is arranged will encounter an upgrade in number of people to a great extent from PPQ. Additionally, the host remote nation will encounter issues related with the new quality of the dealings between representatives of PPQ and the current individuals of the area where PPQ has chosen to build up its stores to sell their items. It is basic that PPQ foresees any issues that may negatively affect the host remote nation and gadget methods of managing them before it begins its procedure of development. Question 2 International associations much of the time experience bottomless social issues when they broaden their exercises into assorted and new regions. At the point when an organization extends to new domains, its workers may experience issues managing customers who are from a various and diverse culture. There is the issue of social affectability which requires the representatives of the global organization to oblige the social acts of their customers. Moreover, laborers of global associations may confront challenges in conquering language hindrances in the new zones of activity (Cateora and Graham 122). These may represent a serious test to the capacity of laborers offering satisfactory and adequate types of assistance to the clients. People with an indistinguishable worth framework, religion, convictions, and language share a comparable culture. Thus, this is granted to each person in the social framework. In this way, laborers of global associations, who are not from a similar social framework as the clients, think that its hard to fathom the customers†™ social framework, consequently influencing the procedure of connection. Question 3 Diversity has become an amazingly fundamental subject in the worldwide field. Any proficient specialist or chief ought to know that the universe is diminishing in size because of chances and administrations encouraged by globalization. Creations, for instance, the web has made assorted variety an amazingly basic subject in the global field since it has made participating in business exercises in various pieces of the world less entangled, and exchange is capitalizing on the open doors brought about by being differing. Moreover, decent variety has made various monetary limitations that were in presence in the past to be destroyed as associations are endeavoring to take part in business exercises all finished and over the universe (Cateora and Graham 159). Likewise, decent variety has gotten a noteworthy subject in the worldwide field since individuals are moving from their local grounds to search f or business openings in different regions. This is obvious in zones, for instance, Europe and North America where there are people of blended lineages and races. Thusly, decent variety has empower people safeguard their unique personality while being a piece of various geographic districts. Question 4 There are various things that may occur if issues identifying with decent variety and multiculturalism are not focused on in a worldwide association. One, the global

Tuesday, August 11, 2020

Post-engagement, pre-Bahamas

Post-engagement, pre-Bahamas First, I want to thank everybody who left their good wishes with regard to our engagement. If you are a person who likes this sort of thing (which heaven knows I do!), feel free to check out my wedding folder Ive been saving pictures of things I like and sticking them in there for future reference. A cool thing that I find amusing We went over to the Museum of Science today to check out the reception site. Hanging in the space over the main entrance to the museum are the vehicles Daedalus (a human-powered plane) and Decavitator (a human-powered boat), which were both powered to world records (Daedalus and Decavitator) by MIT aero/astro professor Mark Drela. Professor Drela happens to be Adams academic advisor/friend/airplane-loving soulmate, and Adams planning to invite him to the wedding. Adam mentioned this to the MoS staff member responsible for renting the facilities, and she got really excited. Were inviting celebrities to our wedding! Sort of! Going on vaca Adam and I are going to the Bahamas tomorrow and staying there until Monday evening. Vacation! Im super-excited. I havent been to the beach since spring break of sophomore year (when I went to Jamaica with Rose 05 and Swapna 05), and I cant wait to lie on the beach and read science books and drink fruity drinks all day. Adam cant wait to visit the Nassau Pirate Museum. Eh, to each his own. Questions 1. Anonymous asked, Youd recommend taking chemistry rather than bio first term in general? If so, please explain. Yup. Almost everybody takes chemistry (whether 3.091, 5.111, or 5.112) first term, which means that youll be able to find more people to join your pset group. Comparatively fewer people take chemistry in the spring (only about 1/4 the number of people who take it in the fall), and those people are overwhelmingly people who failed it in the fall. Some courses at MIT have on terms and off terms intro chemistry is almost always taken in the fall, so the spring class is usually markedly less enjoyable, but intro biology is taken whenever it can be fit in, so the spring and fall classes are equally enjoyable. Furthermore, if youre planning to take further chemistry courses, taking 5.111/5.112 in the fall frees you up to take 5.12 in the spring, then 5.13 the next fall 5.13 is only offered in the fall, so if you want to take it your sophomore year, youd better take 5.111/2 fall of your freshman year. 2. Betty asked, Hey Mollie! Would you recommend taking 7.01x first year for premeds if there are other science GIRs to complete? Also, what are the differences between the intro bio courses? Thanks =] I would take 7.01x during the freshman year if youre planning to major in biology or in any other department which requires a lot of bio courses (such as BE or chemE with biotrack). Most biology-related majors take 7.03 in the fall of their sophomore years and 7.05 in the spring, so youll want to have 7.01x under your belt before taking those classes. I believe premeds generally want to finish the classes required for the MCAT by the end of sophomore year anyway. As for differences between biology classes, I think 7.012 (offered in the fall) and 7.013 (spring) are really quite similar, though I believe 7.013 has more of an emphasis on human disease and genetics than 7.012. The major differences between 7.012 and 7.013 are with the professors 7.012 is famously taught by Eric Lander and Bob Weinberg, while 7.013 is taught by Tyler Jacks (a very well-known cancer researcher) and Hazel Sive. I personally thought Jacks was wonderful and adorable, but everyone says Lander is outstanding too. More non-biology majors take 7.013 than 7.012, although Im not sure why. 7.014 is different from 7.013 and 7.012, as it emphasizes microorganisms, as well as big things like ecology and evolution, which most other MIT biology classes dont do. 3. anon asked, when do we register for P.E. classes? I want to take ice dancing :P The DAPER website says that registration will be August 30 to September 6 this year, and first quarter classes will run from September 11 to October 24. (PE classes last half a semester during term and all month during IAP.) Be sure to check this website between August 30 and September 6, as there is a PE lottery to enter to get your class. (Like most other MIT lotteries, its kind of just a suggestion if you miss the lottery, you can go to the first meeting of a class you like and usually get in. But space is more limited in PE classes, so its best to get lotteried in.) 4. Kelly asked, Hey Mollie, if it usually takes around five and a half years to get a PhD, do you know how MD/PhD programs work? Thanks. Usually MD/PhD candidates go to medical school for the first two years, do their PhD in four years, and finish medical school. (I have a flowchart on my Degrees in Biology PDF!) The way this works out is that MD/PhD candidates are generally given thesis projects that are more of a sure thing theyre not especially likely to get earth-shattering results from them, but theyre likely to be able to get through the PhD part with fewer snags than the average PhD-only candidate. Some MD/PhD programs work differently my friend Jen 06, for example, is picking a lab for her thesis before she starts medical school (shes up to her ears in zebrafish this summer!). But I think that just means shell hit the ground running on her thesis in two years when she starts the PhD part of her program.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Eating Disorders And The Body Image - 1573 Words

Millions of people struggle daily to maintain a perfect physical body image in hopes of receiving approval, love, and happiness. The need to maintain this perfect image is supported by society and the media with a mirage of messages that you can be happy if you obtain this perfect image. Society s ideals of what the human body should look like have caused numerous people to develop abnormal eating patterns in a contempt to conform and seek society s approval of their body image. An eating disorder is an ailment that causes severe imbalances to your diet habits that you use everyday, such as gluttonously overeating or not taking in a healthy amount of food. At first, a person with an eating disorder would eat a smaller or larger portion of food, but at some point, the drive to eat less or more becomes out of control. Researchers are finding that eating disorders are caused by a complex interaction of genetic, biological, behavioral, psychological, and social factors. Researchers are u sing the latest in technology and science to better understand eating disorders. One approach involves the study of human genes. Researchers are studying various combinations of genes to determine if any DNA variations are linked to the risk of developing eating disorders. Neuroimaging studies are also providing a better understanding of eating disorders and possible treatments. One study showed different patterns of brain activity between women with bulimia nervosa and healthy womenShow MoreRelatedBody Image And Eating Disorders1375 Words   |  6 PagesBody Image and Eating Disorders Females and males are both under pressure to conform to societies idea of beauty. Women feel pressure to be thin, big chested, while men feel the urge to be lean and muscular. Society portrays these images of thinness and muscularity through media, magazines, and even toys. These images can have an impact on peoples body images, which can lead to eating disorders such as Anorexia nervosa and Bulimia nervosa. Body Image is the way you see your body, and how you feelRead MoreBody Image And Eating Disorders Essay1531 Words   |  7 Pagesexpectation, and yet our young women are expected to emulate this image. The result of such pressures can prove to be too much to handle and young women often resort to pathogenic dieting and experience body image and eating disorders. The increase in mental health disorders associated with body image in teen girls attributed to the unrealistic standards set in magazines targeted toward young women, therefore magazines need to use images that reflect the realities of the target audience and should notRead MoreEating Disorders And Body Image Essay1115 Words   |  5 PagesKarlye Weber AMST 3723 Dr. Carreiro 15 November 2016 Typically when covering the topic of eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction athletes and young women are the center of research and are stereotyped to be the only groups of people who suffer from self-image issues. In â€Å"The Hidden Faces of Eating Disorders and Body Image,† authors Justine Reels and Katherine Beals look to breakdown the stereotypes and dig deeper into the issues that cross over the borders of ethnicity, age and genderRead MoreEating Disorders And Body Image1613 Words   |  7 Pages Eating disorders and body image Cenia Xu Father Michael Mcgivney Catholic Academy Effects of Eating disorders have on teenagers Every day, teenagers are surrounded by different messages from different sources that impact the way they feel about the way they look. For some, poor body image is a sign of a serious problem: an eating disorder. Eating disorders are not just about food.The eating disorders containRead MoreEating Disorders, Body Image Gender Essay1721 Words   |  7 PagesRIGHTS (HE6) ASSIGNMENT EATING DISORDERS, BODY IMAGE GENDER Submitted to: Dr. Sivakami Muthusamy Centre for Health and Social Sciences School of Health Systems Studies, TISS, Mumbai. Submitted by: Pallavi Muraleedharan Enrollment Number: M2015HE018 Master of Health Administration (2015-17) Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai Date: 16/08/2016 INTRODUCTION Eating disorders, body image and gender remain as a very complex interlinked web. Eating disorders affect people from all demographicsRead MoreEating Disorders And Body Image Issues1655 Words   |  7 PagesEating disorders: noun. A group of psychological ailments characterized by intense fear of becoming obese, distorted body image, and prolonged food refusal (anorexia nervosa) and/or binge eating followed by purging through induced vomiting, heavy exercise, or use of laxatives (bulimia nervosa).These ailments are not pretty. In this society, where only the fit and thin bodies are accepted and appreciated, eating disorders are more common than they should be. Children, starting at a young age, seeRead MoreEating Disorders and Negative Body Images662 Words   |  3 Pagesfaced with eating disorders and negative body images everywhere they go. Celebrities promote unrealistic standards and display what the â€Å"acceptable† body is. Because of our stick thin role models we hav e in the media today much of our society holds their own body image to the unobtainable standards of celebrities. People are bombarded with images of what’s â€Å"sexy† instead of what’s healthy (Helmich). In a world based around celebrities and media, shouldn’t they be promoting a healthy body image insteadRead MoreBody Image, Eating Disorders and Advertising3063 Words   |  13 PagesBody Image, Eating Disorders and Advertising Body Image, Eating Disorders and Advertising We have all heard, â€Å"you are what you eat†; however, and maybe more importantly, you want to be what you watch or read. How does today’s advertising impact on your body image? The shaping of our concept of the ideal body image begins at a young age and continues though adulthood. It begins with our toys; that first Barbie you received on your sixth birthday; the one with the long blond flowing hairRead MoreEating Disorders And Body Image Issues2801 Words   |  12 PagesIntroduction Eating disorders (ED) and body image issues are increasingly becoming more and more common among women in Western societies (Stice, 2002). Over the past couple years the prevalence of bulimia nervosa (BN) and has steadily increased, 3 out of 100 women that are now diagnosed with the disorder (Botta, 1999; Hesse-Biber et. al, 2006). This brings into question wether it is in fact BN that is increasing, our awareness or the rising numbers of other comorbid disorders in Western societiesRead MoreTeen s Body Image And Eating Disorders996 Words   |  4 PagesTeen Girls’ Body Image and Eating Disorders In today’s society, many adolescent girls are dissatisfied with their body image due to comparing themselves to the media’s unrealistic ideal thin body. Since they grow up in a world filled with mass media such as television, films, magazines, movies, music, newspaper and the Internet, it is very easy to come across this ideal body image (Morris Katzman, 2003). As teen girls associate with this ideal thinness they tend to be dissatisfied with their

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Origin of the Cold War Essay - 775 Words

After the Second World War America and the Soviet Union gained power in Europe. Though these to countries never fought one another, they waged a cold war of economic, military and ideological rivalry which last through the second half of the twentieth century. The origin of the Cold War began with the Russian Revolution in nineteen-seventeen, which created a Soviet Russia. The Soviet Russia did not have the same economic and ideological state as the United States. The Civil war in Russia in which Western powers unsuccessfully intervened, dedicated to the spreading of communism. This fueled an environment of mistrust and fear between Russia and the rest of Europe. The United States pursued a policy of isolationism; however the situation†¦show more content†¦The allies did liberated large parts of Western Europe and recreated democratic nations. This divide Europe into two blocks and each occupied by armies America and the Allies and in the east Russia. The United States wanted a democratic Europe and Russia wanting a communist Europe. The difference was added fear of the Soviet invasion in the West and Russians fear of the atomic bomb. There was also fear of economic collapse in the west versus fear of economic domination by the w est. This lead to the clash of ideologies; capitalism versus communist. The Soviet feared a rearmed Germany hostile to Russia. Churchill described the dividing the lines between East and West Germany as an Iron Curtain. With Europe firmly divided into communist and capitalist, Germany became the new battle ground. There was the Berlin Blockade this was aimed at bluffing the Allies into renegotiation the division of Germany in his favor. This act did work, the allies just called his bluff by flying over Russian airspace. Stalin did not retaliate and risk war. In nineteen-forty nine with the Berlin Blockade in full effect and the threat of conflict with Russia, the Western powers signed the NATO treaty creating a military alliance. When Russia detonated its first atomic weapon, America advantage of having war was over because the fears over the consequences of nuclear conflict. Later West Germany wasShow MoreRelatedThe Origins Of Cold War1550 Words   |  7 PagesThis research looks at the origins of Cold war, the political, ideological and economical rivalry between the United States and Soviet Union. This research draws upon mostly primary sources including memoirs, interviews and scholarly studies of cold war era conflicts. Most research on this topic focuses on its connection to the famous events and upheavals, which shaped that era. â€Å"From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an â€Å"Iron Curtain† has descended across the continent. Behind thatRead MoreOrigins Of The Cold War1465 Words   |  6 Pages18.1- Origins of the Cold War †¢ Allies Clash o After World War II finally came to an end, the United States and Soviet Union had conflicting ideas of how to restore the world back to normal. ï‚ § Stalin wanted complete and ultimate control over the countries that were within the borders of the Soviet Union, spreading communist regimes. ï‚ § Meanwhile, the United States wished for all these states that were under Nazi rule to have self-determination. o This essentially formed a rivalry between the idealsRead MoreThe Origin Of Cold War1987 Words   |  8 PagesThe Origin of Cold War: Ideology Clashes According to some sources, the fall of the Berlin wall on November 9th 1989 marks the significant ending of the years long Cold war between the two super power; the United States and the Soviet Union. The Cold War is unlike any other wars as there are no big battles but instead the two superpowers focus their competition on politics, economics, military, and ideological might. Since the Cold War is unique for the aforementioned reason, experts have long debatedRead MoreThe Origins Of The Cold War2356 Words   |  10 PagesHI742/HI747- The Cold War, 1941-1991 How Important were individual figures in the origins of the Cold War? The Cold War refers to a period post World War II characterised by a state of political tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States both supported by their allies from the Eastern and Western blocs respectively. Despite this being such a pivotal point in modern history there is a lack of clarity stemming from much debate regarding the catalyst for the Cold War and the ‘start’Read MoreOrigins of the Cold War Essay1295 Words   |  6 PagesOrigins of the Cold War The purpose of this paper is to explore the origins of the Cold War. To accomplish this exploration, the works of W.A. Williams, Robert Jervis, and Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. serves as the foundation. Before a closer examination of these works, a short explanation of the three common viewpoints regarding the study of the Cold War is warranted. These viewpoints are Attribution, Structural, and Misperception. With these viewpoints to guide the way, the above authorsRead MoreEssay on The Origins of the Cold War817 Words   |  4 PagesThe Origins of the Cold War The Cold War period from 1945 to 1985 was a result of distrust and misunderstanding between the USSR and the United States of America. This distrust never actually resulted any fighting between the two superpowers but they came very close to fighting on several occasions. The Cold War was a result of many different events and factors including the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, the Potsdam Conference of 1945, the differences between communismRead MoreOrigins of the Cold War Essay1179 Words   |  5 PagesOrigins of the Cold War Revisionist historians tend to regard the outbreak of the Cold War as a result of American hostility or, at least , diplomatic incompetence, while the more traditional view lays the responsibility squarely at the feet of the Soviet Union. Assess the validity of each view. The Cold War,said to have lasted from the end of World War II to the dismantling of the Soviet Union in 1991, was one of the most significant political events of the 20th century. For nearlyRead MoreEssay about The Origins of the Cold War679 Words   |  3 PagesThe Origins of the Cold War The Cold War was a state of extreme hostility and confrontation but without direct militant action between the two world powers, the USSR and the USA. The USSR and the USA were originally wartime Allies during the Second World War; however a string of events and issues caused a built up of suspicion and distrust which finally escalated to what was known as the Cold War. The start of Cold War can be simply defined as the period of time wherebyRead More The Historiography of the Origins of the Cold War Essay2691 Words   |  11 PagesThe Historiography of the Origins of the Cold War There have been many attempts to explain the origins of the Cold War that developed between the capitalist West and the communist East after the Second World War. Indeed, there is great disagreement in explaining the source for the Cold War; some explanations draw on events pre-1945; some draw only on issues of ideology; others look to economics; security concerns dominate some arguments; personalities are seen as the root cause for some historiansRead MoreThe United States And The Origins Of The Cold War1717 Words   |  7 PagesProfessor Calvo AMH2042 23 July 2015 The United States and the Origins of the Cold War Essay Thinking about the decisions, strategies and goals of Soviet Union and the United States views on world domination and the possible accomplishment of such. The first and main would be to think and observe critically concerning the worldwide political scenery in the years after World War II (1945). This moment in history; taking all the way through the Cold War, may be seen as a lapse of severe ideological polarization

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Health Care Reform Research Proposal Free Essays

Bailey 1 UNIV 4995 Senior Project Research Proposal September 23, 2010 Health Care Reform Benefits Everyone It feels good to be able to make a doctor’s appointment and get health screens or prescriptions as needed without the hassle of being rejected because lack of health insurance. I, unlike millions, am employed full time by a major company that has this option. A very close friend of mine, who is paralyzed from the waist down had been covered by his mother’s health insurance through her employer for many years. We will write a custom essay sample on Health Care Reform Research Proposal or any similar topic only for you Order Now Last year, she came of retirement age and the insurance company informed them that Jimmy will no longer be covered and need to seek other options. Until President Obama’s Health Care Reform Bill, Jimmy was denied coverage numerous times because of his â€Å"pre-existing conditions. † How could a country so rich, deny a person who needs medical insurance? We needed a change and this Bill was indeed the answer. The Health Care Reform Bill is much needed and relevant to society because it will extend health care to those with pre-existing conditions like those of Jimmy’s’. It will also extend coverage to seniors and make prescriptions more available to them. The Bill will also increase the age of coverage to young adults who are currently on their parents’ policies. There are much of Americas population who are uninformed or just do not approve of the Health Care Bill. Many may question the tax increase on citizens for Medicare or have questions Bailey 2 regarding the countries’ deficit. Some may ask, â€Å"Why is it fair to pay extra for people who smoke or people who are unhealthy? † And finally, many republicans, rich or wealthy Americans object this bill mostly because they feel they are taxed the hardest and are punished for being wealthy. With support for research, I will address all of these issues. With charts and data from the US Bureau of Statistics, I will retrieve information that will back facts that the Health Care Reform Bill will benefit our country more than it will hurt it. I will research articles and interviews from politicians and regular American citizens (wealthy, middle, and poor) to prove we are on the right track. Our country needs our support. I plan to visit local libraries to obtain reference information to give a more in-depth analysis on changes the bill has brought about. With the proper support, I can identify facts that the Pro’s definitely outweigh the Con’s. I am writing to all the Americans who do not support this bill and to Americans who are not informed of how important it is. I want to shed light on this subject and hopefully answer questions of people who are sketchy about politics in general. The burning question remains â€Å"How will the Health Care Reform Bill affect me? † My goal in this paper is to answer questions and inform â€Å"the people† that this bill will benefit us all and should be supported. How to cite Health Care Reform Research Proposal, Essays

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Innovation Problem in Organization-Free-Samples for Students

Question: Describe what the innovation problem is that you are faced with in your Chosen company. Answer Introduction The report is prepared to assess the innovation problem faced within the business organization in Saudi Arabia and how it has managed to deal with that for ensuring successful business functioning. The innovation problem faced within Carrefour, which is selected as the case study here can create an impact on the establishment of a good culture as well. Due to innovation problem, the business performance may deteriorate as well as hinder the successful accomplishment of business objectives. The report will discuss about the innovation problem that Carrefour Saudi Arabia is facing and ways to resolve those issues too. Carrefour has 12 franchise-operated hypermarkets in Saudi Arabia, with five of those being in the capital Riyadh itself (, 2018). The innovation of the company includes opening a new store that provides digital solutions including m-commerce services to make the shopping experiences of the customers more convenient and flexible. Innovation problem faced with in the company There are various problems faced while enabling innovation within the business organization and due to this the organizational structure and way of managing the business operations also change. Due to this the workers of the company find it difficult to adapt to the changes and the business functioning also deteriorates. Few problems related to the innovation include lack of ability of employees to innovate due to improper leadership skills and poor support by the managers of the organization. The leaders also fail to keep the staffs motivated, because of which, the innovation outcomes may be inappropriate as well. With the innovation, changes were made and this had resulted in developing an app to make customers purchase products and services online (Katzy et al., 2013). One of the major problems was that the app was not working properly sometime, which not only created difficulties to purchase the products and the online app does not show all the available products that could be fo und at the stores of Carrefour. Another problem with innovation is that innovation is centralized to a particular functional group only, and due to this, the innovation procedures are time consuming. Having more functional groups can prevent any hindrance to the innovation pace and provide unique solutions to the problems faced by the customers. Lack of coordination and diversity also creates innovation problem and this can make the organization face risks while offering the new and innovative products in the market (Subramaniam, 2012). Innovation, if not measured or benchmarked could create difficulty to evaluate the key performable indicators and even generate new ideas required to generate greater value of innovation related approaches. With the appointment of a new CEO, certain approaches were undertaken to innovate the business operations and processes, though it brought some major problems for Carrefour. The new CEO tried to innovate by converting some of the hypermarkets of the company into franchises and even introducing some of the Sunday openings as well. The shares of the company reduced to more than thirty percent due to lesser revenue generation as well (Lorenz, 2015). Due to lack of leadership skills, the staffs were not empowered and kept motivated to perform efficiently by embracing the changes achieved through innovation within the organization. The employees were not motivated and encouraged properly to adapt to the changes, because of which they felt less motivated to innovate. Though innovation has been done like changes in organizational structure and culture, still the employees have been unable to access the necessary resources and even faced issues to cooperate with others within the workplace. The staffs were not trained, because of which, they were unable to create an app that could provide all the necessary services properly for improving the shopping experience of the clients. Carrefour operates over 12 franchise hypermarkets in Saudi Arabia and five of these are located at Riyadh (Kang, 2016). Innovation is something not similar to the invention and creativity; because the creativity and inventions are focused are solution centric whereas he innovations managed within the organization are considered as problem centric. Same has happened for Carrefour, where a new CEO is appointed who can enable changes and mange innovation with the focus on solving problems (, 2018). The innovators are focused on the issue with the own proposed solutions, because of which they may not create own ideas and concepts. Due to lack of proper leadership and managerial skills, there were conflicts and misunderstandings, which reduced the group thinking abilities and skills as well (Sloep, Berlanga Retalis, 2014). There was not a proper working condition as well, which created difficulties for the individuals to express themselves and deliver their ideas and opinions too. The innovation at Carrefour changed the organizational structure and a different culture was created, which ma ny of the staffs felt quite difficult to cope up with. The organizational policies were not in place too, which further resulted in forming an inappropriate culture where people could work. Innovation at Carrefour was managed by undertaking sustainable approaches, which increased the prices of certain products and services and left the customers unsatisfied (Urbancova, 2013). Relation between organizational culture and innovation Carrefour experienced a significant loss in business due to the recent changes made through innovation. Due to the innovation, a different organizational culture and structure was enabled, which created difficulties for many of the staffs to adjust with. Carrefour decided to create a diverse workforce consisting of people from different backgrounds and cultures, which resulted in improper communication process, which was furthermore facilitated by change in leadership and strategies. Many of the staffs even failed to accept the need for changes, which created insecurity and varied ambitions of people within the workplace (Lorenz, 2013). Due to the implementation of a new organizational structure, other problems faced were lack of communication, poor organizational hierarchy, due to which, the managers, employers and employees were confused regarding their new roles and responsibilities. The roles and responsibilities were not delegated properly to certain staffs and the cost incurred due to the innovation of organizational structure was huge as well. The company faced innovation problem because the shopping app developed to improve the online shopping experiences of the customers was not always working properly. It was due to the lack of skills and knowledge of the workers, due to which, they failed to cooperate with each other (OSullivan Dooley, 2012). Due to this, the organizational culture was not effective, which hindered the successful management of innovation at Carrefour. By maintaining a good culture within the organization, it could have been easier to OCAI instrument The Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument or OCAI is utilized by Carrefour, Saudi Arabia to assess the organizational culture and make sure that the staffs perform to their potential for enabling innovation all throughout. This would not only make them adjust with the changes but would also allow them to work in coordination and as an unit through the establishment of a good culture within the workplace. The OCAI tool is used as an effective assessment tool for evaluating the organizational culture and desire for changes implemented through the various innovation procedures. The Competing Values framework and different culture types are used as important aspects related to the OCAI assessment tool (Camisn Villar-Lpez, 2014). Competing values framework The competing values framework consists of the four major quadrants including the collaborate, create, control and compete. The assessment tool is used for enabling flexibility and adaptability and furthermore allows the employees to consider the innovation as a positive outcome. The Collaborate quadrant could enable the staffs and employees of Carrefour to work in coordination and prioritize on the shared values. This would promote good communication between the workers and develop a positive work culture within the workplace. The Create quadrant would allow them to show their creative skills and foster innovation by aligning with the vision and objectives of Carrefour. The individuals working for Carrefour must be flexible to consider the changes and this could be supported by a positive culture for moving towards the future (Eeckelaert et al., 2012). The create quadrant would also allow the staffs to become creative and emphasize on the accomplishment of outcomes with ease. This c ould have facilitated the development of the online shopping app through the development of a compelling vision and generating new ideas for the future as well. The Compete quadrant focuses on the individuals who are concerned with the competition and achievement of goals and objectives by competing against each other (Ikramullah et al., 2016). The Compete quadrant would allow the individuals to speed up the management of business processes and obtain higher market share and ensure brand equity too. The control quadrant could enable clarification of roles and responsibilities of the worker at Carrefour, furthermore conduct researches and feasibility study to understand whether the innovation procedures would be beneficial or not (Vila, Perez Morillas, 2012). To improve the organizational effectiveness, the competing values framework helped in providing better stability, control and flexibility. It was also ensured that the employees work together in coordination to create a good culture and at the same time, achieved the positive results within quick time. There are different organizational culture types that are adopted by different organizations to create good working conditions and communication between the staffs to improve the business operations efficiency. Four quadrants are associated with the different cultures and values needed to be maintained within the organization (Vila, Prez Coll-Serrano, 2014). Figure: OCAI framework values related to culture (Vila, Prez Coll-Serrano, 2014) Organizational culture Because there were problems related to the innovation, so, the company wanted to focus on the major values including the flexibility, discretion, stability and control for assisting the employees to embrace the changes with ease. This could make the employees perform their roles and responsibilities together and furthermore discuss about the issues faced by communicating with each other. The organization desired for flexibility, better stability and control and to maintain these values, Carrefour should create a market culture or clan culture (Ovseiko Buchan, 2012). The clan culture was absent previously and if the company wants to maintain the values, then the development of a clan culture can create a good working environment and address the needs of the clients by promoting participation of employees, team working and consensus. The market culture should be created for gaining reputation and success by reaching the objectives fruitfully. Market penetration and stock management could be important aspects managed through the setting of proper prices and understanding how to make the online shopping experience more convenient and easy for the customers. However, for that, a proper app should be developed that could be assessed through revaluation of requirements of the customers and creating a platform where the employees could discuss about these matters properly (Belasen Rufer, 2013). This would overcome the innovation problems as well as make Carrefour less susceptible to changes, furthermore maintain flexibility, stability and control all t hroughout. Recommendations It is recommended conduct a feasibility study of the innovation procedures at first, because innovation itself is an effective way to overcome issues with ease. Carrefour should maintain a positive culture to create good working conditions and at the same time, facilitate team working and communication between the employees. Assessment of the performances of the workers is recommended for evaluating the areas of weaknesses and trains them to improve their skills, knowledge and expertise. To deal with the innovation problems, it would be important for the leaders and manager of Carrefour to keep the employees motivated by providing them with benefits and rewards It is also recommended to create a proper organizational structure where decentralization is possible for enhancing the efficiency of the business operations and ensure gaining the best outcomes from the innovation procedures. Conclusion The report explained the innovation issue faced by Carrefour in Saudi Arabia due to the lack of proper culture, poor communication and team working between the employees. The problem analyzed here was the implementation of the online shopping app to provide the customers with a better shopping experience. It was a major step to innovation undertaken by the organization, though the app was found to be not working at certain situations along with unavailability of all the products and services that were actually available at the stores. This was due to the lack of communication between the staffs and poor coordination among them, which deteriorated the culture and even hindered the successful management of business operations. This affected the innovation negatively, due to which, the OCAI framework was utilized to determine the culture that should be the most suitable for ensuring flexibility, stability and control at the company. The market and clan cultures were found to be effectiv e and it was also recommended to provide the organizational staffs with proper training sessions so that they could understand the importance of teamwork and create new ideas for innovating the products and services of Carrefour. References Belasen, A., Rufer, R. (2013). Innovation communication and inter-functional collaboration: a view from the competing values framework for corporate communication. InStrategy and Communication for Innovation(pp. 227-240). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Camisn, C., Villar-Lpez, A. (2014). 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